Last Updated on March 23, 2023 by You Ling
Piezoelectric materials are among the most commonly used functional materials today due to their exceptional piezoelectric properties
Piezoelectric material is a complex electronic material. Although it has been developed for many years, it is not well understood by many people. By reading the following articles, it will be easier for you to understand the characteristics of piezoelectric materials, and to better choose piezoelectric materials suitable for your project.
- why are piezoelectric materials important
- What is a piezoelectric material
- Types of piezoelectric materials
- How to choose the right piezoelectric material
- Application of piezoelectric materials
- Major electronic material manufacturers
- The future of piezoelectric materials
1、Why are piezoelectric materials important?
Piezoelectric materials, as one of the most frequently used functional materials today, are widely used because of their high chemical stability, convenient preparation process, low cost and good piezoelectric performance. Piezoelectric ceramics play an important role in daily life, not only widely used in civil life, but also play an essential role in military devices
2、What is a piezoelectric material?
Piezoelectric materials are among the most commonly used functional materials today due to their exceptional piezoelectric properties, low cost, high chemical stability, and easy preparation process. Piezoelectric ceramics are indispensable in our daily lives, being widely used in civilian and military applications alike.
Furthermore, these materials have a wide range of applications due to their ability to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy, and vice versa. In civilian life, piezoelectric ceramics are utilized in various devices such as sensors, actuators, and ultrasound equipment. In the military, they play a vital role in sensors, sonars, and transducers for underwater communication and navigation. Overall, piezoelectric materials are versatile and significant functional materials that have revolutionized numerous fields of technology.
For over 50 years, the industry has mostly used lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics because they work well. But now, researchers are looking for new materials that don’t have lead to be more environmentally friendly. These new materials are promising, but more research is needed to make them work better for everyday use.
3、Types of Piezoelectric Materials
There are many classifications of piezoelectric materials.
According to the performance of the material, it can be divided into inorganic piezoelectric materials and organic piezoelectric materials.
According to the synthesis method of the material, it is divided into natural existence and artificial synthetic materials.
According to the type of material, it is divided into a single crystal, polymer, ceramic, relaxor, relaxor ferroelectric, high temperature, and lead-free piezoelectric material
But everyone is more general and simple: piezoelectric crystals, piezoelectric ceramics, piezoelectric polymers, piezoelectric composites
In contrast, piezoelectric crystals have low dielectric constant, high stability, and high mechanical quality factor. Common ones include crystal, lithium germanate, and lithium gallate.
Piezoelectric ceramics have strong piezoelectric performance, high dielectric constant, poor stability, and large electrical loss. Common ones include barium titanate BT, modified lead titanate PT, and lead zirconate titanate PZT. In addition, the process of tableting ceramics is relatively complicated. In the production process, it is necessary to complete ingredients, mixing and grinding, pre-firing, secondary grinding, granulation, forming, plastic discharge, sintering into porcelain, shape processing, electrode, high-voltage polarization, Aging test, and other processes, there are many types of products, including split electrode squares, single-sided lead electrodes, split electrodes, etc.
This type of material has the advantages of low density, high flexibility, low resistance, and high piezoelectric voltage constant, and is widely used in underwater acoustics, ultrasound, electroacoustics, and other fields.
Piezoelectric composites made up of piezoelectric ceramic and polymer phases form excellent piezoelectric materials
High coupling factor, low acoustic impedance, and mechanical flexibility characterizes these materials.
These materials are specially used for underwater sonar and medical diagnostic ultrasonic transducer applications.
Which is the Best Piezoelectric Material?
Engineers from heshuai company gave some suggestions:
Piezoelectric materials are chosen based on the requirement of our applications. The material that could easily meet our requirement can be considered the best. There are a few factors to be considered while choosing piezoelectric materials.
The five important merits of piezoelectric are
4.1. The electromechanical coupling factor k
k2 = (Stored mechanical energy / Input electrical energy) or
k2 = (Stored electrical energy / Input mechanical energy)
4.2. Piezoelectric strain constant d
Describes the relation of magnitude of induced strain x to the electric field E as x = d.E.
4.3. Piezoelectric voltage constant g
g defines the relation between the external stress X and induced electric field E as E = g.X.
Using the relation P = d.X. we can state g = d/ε0 .ε. where ε = permittivity.
4.4. Mechanical quality factor QM
This parameter characterizes the sharpness of the electromechanical resonance system.
QM= ω0/2 ω.
4.5. Acoustic Impedance Z
This parameter evaluates the acoustic energy transfer between two materials. This is defined as
Z2 = (pressure/volume velocity).
In solid materials Z = √ρ.√ϲ where ρ is the density and ϲ is the elastic stiffness of the material.
Based on these physical, material, and electromechanical properties we can easily distinguish between piezoelectric materials. These properties help us to choose the best piezoelectric material for our application.
5、Application of piezoelectric materials
Piezoelectric materials can convert mechanical energy into electrical energy and are commonly used in the manufacture of transducers. They can be divided into two categories: vibration energy-electric energy converters and ultrasonic vibration energy-electric energy converters, including water energy transducers, electric energy transducers, Ultrasonic transducer. In addition, piezoelectric materials are used in sensors, drivers, and new energy technologies. The application of the transducer can be used in industrial production of microphones, high frequency speakers, stereo headphones, etc. Piezoelectric materials are used in pressure sensors and can be used to produce dry pressure sensors. Compared with ordinary sensors, the overall performance has been improved, and the specific performance is fast response, poor hysteresis, strong anti-overload ability, high precision, strong anti-interference ability, high temperature resistance and corrosion resistance, which is a new step for the technical level of the sensor industry. milestone.
6、Major electronic material manufacturers
|PIEZO KINETICS, INC||www.piezo-kinetics.com|
|belongs to CTS||www.noliac.com|
|McDanel Advanced Ceramic Technologies||www.mcdanelceramics.com|
|PEPI (piezo electric product Inc)||www.piezo.com|
|ACT (Advanced Ceramic Technology）||www.advancedceramictech.com|
|BOSTON PIEZO-OPTICS INC||https://www.bostonpiezooptics.com/|
7、The future of piezoelectric materials
As the demand for renewable energy sources increases, piezoelectric materials can play an important role in providing clean and sustainable energy. The development of more efficient and durable piezoelectric materials will be important in improving the performance of energy harvesting systems.
In addition to energy harvesting, piezoelectric materials can also have a significant impact in other areas, such as sensing and actuation. The development of new and innovative applications for piezoelectric materials will be important in driving their future growth.
Furthermore, advancements in nanotechnology and material science are expected to further enhance the performance of piezoelectric materials, making them more efficient and versatile. This could lead to the development of new piezoelectric materials that can operate in a wider range of conditions and environments.
Overall, the future of piezoelectric materials is promising, and their continued development and application will play an important role in meeting the growing demand for sustainable and efficient energy sources.